Red-headed Woodpecker Recovery Project

Research Team Final Report for MRVAC for 2017 Summer Research Season

By Keith Olstad November 25, 2017 

Red-headed Woodpecker
Red-headed Woodpecker, courtesy USFWS

Last December, our Red-headed Woodpecker (RHWO) Recovery research team submitted a grant application to the Minnesota River Valley Audubon Club. Our primary request was for funds to defray expenses for increased volunteer and professional field-work to begin to answer these questions:

  1. What factors govern RHWO nest productivity and survival of juveniles into the next year?
  2. What “internal” factors (e.g., sex, body condition, etc.) and/or “external” factors (e.g., food availability, weather, population density) drive RHWO to overwinter at Cedar Creek ecosystem Science Reserve (CCESR) or migrate
  3. Where do RHWO go when they migrate? Do they migrate to the same place each year?

We were deeply gratified to receive a $3,000 grant from the Minnesota River Valley Audubon Chapter. We express a small part of our gratitude with this report on the application of these funds to critical research done this past summer, and offer to do a program for MRVAC detailing our work to date.

With support from a variety of funding sources (as reported in our initial grant proposal), we were able to hire a post-doctoral research coordinator, Dr. Elena West, to coordinate the work of our field research team. Dr. West worked half-time through the summer, and will continued to work this fall through December to analyze our data and formulate our research field work for 2018. Working with Dr. West at the Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve (CCESR) were two full time seasonal research assistants, Candace Stenzel and Jesse Beck. Resources provided by MRVAC defrayed expenses for field work done at CCESR by this team and by about thirty-six volunteer “citizen scientists”, and helped with laboratory expenses for data analysis.

During the course of the summer, the field research team “processed” sixty-six RHWO at CCESR, fifty adults and sixteen nestlings/fledglings. (“Processed” refers to capturing, banding, taking measurements, drawing blood samples and feather samples for DNA analysis, and possible use of location devices, listed below.) Thirty-nine RHWO were newly banded, and twenty-two nests were monitored. Twenty adults were outfitted with geo-GPS backpacks, of which eight were recovered in late summer and early fall, meaning that CPS and/or geo-locator data were gathered from these birds. Fifteen juveniles were “marked” with radio backpacks, allowing their movement to be tracked. In all, seventy-two birds were captured.

Parallel to the work of the field research technicians, thirty-six citizen science volunteers contributed 1,550 hours to the 2017 summer RHWO research season. They worked on five specific projects:

  1. RHWO nest location
  2. 2. RHWO parental effort in feeding nestlings
  3. Food use identification
  4. Oak tree tagging
  5. Nest cavity porthole installation

Data collected to date will be analyzed for preliminary results during late fall and early winter of 2017. Blood samples taken from summer RHWO captures will receive lab analysis over the 2017-18 winter. Spring 2018 recaptures of transmitter birds will allow downloading data regarding winter locations of these RHWOs.

In addition to the research conducted on RHWO, over the summer fifteen guided hikes and programs about this project, led by RHWO Recovery Project volunteers, provided rich educational opportunities to over 200 people at CCESR.

The research team of the RHWO Recovery Project created a partnership with Dr. Henry Streby at the University of Toledo, who is initiating similar research in Ohio and other states. This partnership will make it possible to compare different population’s genetic patterns and adult and juvenile activities on a broader geographic scale for more conclusive research results.

A new round of grant requests will be issued in the coming months to support and expand our exciting research.

Please feel free to contact me with further questions or concerns about our project’s use of your grant, and to explore setting up a program for MRVAC detailing our work and our vision for future work. And thank you once again for your most generous contribution to the recovery of this splendid bird.

Contacts: Keith Olstad, Convener, Research Team, RHWO Recovery Project (612) 940-1534

Chet Meyers, chair of the Red-headed Woodpecker Recovery Project (612) 374-5581

Birders and Birding

The older I get the more I like birders, the younger ones especially. Yes, we older birders are OK, even with our faults and some of us, who are really old, with our ignorance of the digital age. I would like to ask your indulgence while I do my best to relate a story of a recent bird trip made up of young birders and one old guy.

In early September I was leading a bird class for North House Folk School at the end of the Gunflint Trail. Josh Watson of Grand Marais was my very able and experienced “young” assistant. Josh did a great job in finding birds like a Golden-crowned Kinglet which I can no longer hear because of their high pitched song. A few weeks after the class my phone rang and it was Josh saying “let’s plan an October trip to Cass County to get your list for the county up to 225”, I replied “That would be just great”. The phone call ended with Josh saying, “I will get the guys (John and Chris Hockema, and Shawn Conrad) together and we will go to Cass County at the end of October and get you three species”. I didn’t have a single scoter species for Cass County so they would be the target birds for our trip. Our plans were to go to Cass County on October 26, 27 and 28.

October 26 came and it was snowing but that did not stop our heading north. I picked up Josh at his grand-mothers house in Ham Lake and we headed for our motel In Pine River, Cass County and the meeting with Shawn Conrad. The three of us headed for Walker and the sewage ponds to look for the reported Harlequin Duck, a really “choice” bird for Cass County. It didn’t take long for us to find the Harlequin Duck, # 223 for Cass County. A Harlequin Duck, a good dinner in Walker and a sound night’s sleep in Pine River really were a good start for the trip.

Early the next morning we were joined by John and Chris Hockema and to my surprise we were joined by Becca Engdahl and her friend, Alex Burchard, two young, up-and-coming and enthusiastic Minnesota birders. Our first stop was the Walker Sewage Ponds to look for the Harlequin Duck which Chris needed for his list. A long search proved futile, we could not find the bird, our first disappointment.

To make a long story short, we spent the rest of the morning touring Leech Lake, Cass Lake, and the Cass Lake Sewage Ponds in hopes of finding any species of Scoter, no luck. Shawn knew of some bogs in the area where we might find a Boreal Chickadee. Beautiful Pine Grosbeaks and Gray Jays were present but no Boreal Chickadees. The day wore on and my list stayed at 223. We were all concerned that our target species, scoters, had all but disappeared or were just not here as we had hoped. Shawn said “let’s try Lake Winnibigoshish, I know some good spots where there should be scoters”. On the way to “Winnie” we traveled through some beautiful wooded evergreen areas, all of us were thinking Black-backed Woodpecker. Mile after mile no luck, all of a sudden Shawn said “STOP”. I wondered why, I hadn’t seen or heard a thing. We stopped and we were all quiet when we heard the tap of a Black-backed Woodpecker stripping bark from a tree. We had difficulty pin-pointing the sound but finally we saw the bird on a downed log, # 224 for Cass County. It was a life-bird for Becca and she crept within 15 feet of the bird, and took wonderful photos and she said it was one of the most rewarding birding experiences she had ever had. Her experience with the woodpecker was a real treat for all of us.

Then Shawn said once again “Let’s go to Winnie, there have to be ducks on there”. We searched the bays and shoreline for over an hour without finding a single duck. Finally our luck changed and we found a bay full of water birds, grebes, both Red-necked and Horned plus a few Pied-billed Grebes and a few Long-tailed Ducks and Lesser Scaup. All of a sudden Josh hollered “there is a scoter”, all scopes went to that spot and there was a White-winged Scoter, #225 for Cass County. This turned out to be the only scoter we saw on the trip but it was a “big” one.

The light was fading but we still had time to check further on “Winnie” but to no avail. There just were not any more waterfowl to be found. We had a great meal together in Walker that evening, a few bottles of beer, lots of bird talk and then a great night’s sleep in spite of Chris’s snoring which shook the whole motel at times.

The next morning we tried the Walker Sewage Ponds again but the Harlequin had disappeared. Birding strategy was discussed and it was decided that we would go over to Lake Superior and look for the reported Red Phalarope in Lake County and the Pacific Loon in Cook County. We failed on the Red Phalarope and then we decided to split up, the young birders would go north for the Pacific Loon and I would head south for home. They got the Pacific Loon and I stopped in Two Harbors where I spotted a small group of birders looking through scopes. They were looking at a Mountain Bluebird which was a new Lake County bird for me. I drove back home a very happy birder, 225 for Cass County and a new county bird for Lake County!

Driving home from Two Harbors I was thinking about how fortunate I was to have young birding friends who were great companions and most helpful with their enthusiasm about finding and enjoying birding, it was a good ride home!

Bird Surveys in Renville County

Lessons in Monoculture Birding

By Bob Janssen, MRVAC Board of Directors 

Here’s my story of how I came to do bird surveys in one of the most intensely agricultural counties, Renville. If you check a map, you will see that the northern boundary is roughly Highway 7. The Minnesota River forms the diagonal boundary.

Common Yellowthroat, courtesy of USFWS

At the MOU spring meeting in St. Paul, I met an old friend, Steve Stucker, who is Director of the Minnesota County Biological Survey. Steve is one of Minnesota’s most knowledgeable birders because of his extensive experience with the geographical distribution of Minnesota birds. I mentioned that I was looking for useful work to keep me busy. Steve told me to get in touch with his wife who is looking for help doing bird surveys in areas in western Minnesota. It sounded exactly like what I was looking for, especially since it might get me back into working with birds.

Jennifer Stucker is the Research Biologist for West Inc who are Environmental and Statistical Consultants doing work in western Minnesota where wind generators are potentially going to be installed. I called Jennifer and was hired and assigned to survey 17 GPS locations in a township in Renville County. I can think of better locations to look for birds but it was work and best of all it had to do with birds!

Surveys were required at each location for 70 minutes once per month. I was trained in the field by one of West’s most experienced people. I thought I knew many things about doing bird surveys but I learned a lot of new techniques while doing these surveys. The surveys included observation of a Bald Eagle nest near to the points I was to survey. Who ever thought there would be a Bald Eagle nest in the “middle” of the corn and soybean monoculture in Renville County?

I have been doing the surveys since April and I have found that this monoculture of agriculture is a great lesson in the changing landscape of Minnesota. This monoculture extends for miles, as far as the eye can see, corn and soybean planted almost to the edge of the road and the ditches along the road where grass and other plants remain which is usually mowed for the hay it produces. Where is there any habitat for birds?

I was really discouraged but as time passed and I grew familiar with the landscape I found out how resilient birds can be. The main grassland habitat that remains is along the drainage ditches which are everywhere. Some of these ditches are 20 to 30 feet or more deep but they are full of grass and other vegetation “spills” out over the top of the ditches. Vesper Sparrows are common along the gravel roads where the ditches and grass occur, Horned Larks, Red-winged Blackbirds, Common Yellowthroats and even a few Bobolinks use the ditch grass for nesting. In addition to birds, butterflies are abundant in the sparse habitat along the gravel roads.

Another area that is good for birds in this intense agriculture area is the farmsteads. Most of the homes are surrounded by dense brush and many species of trees which provide excellent woodland habitat for Red-headed Woodpeckers, Northern Flickers and Downy Woodpeckers. Mourning Doves and Red-winged Blackbirds are probably the most common birds in the area, they are everywhere and an occasional Eurasian Collared-Dove can be heard about the farm houses. American Robins, Barn Swallows and House Wrens are present around each farm home. I have even found Least Flycatchers in a few of the woodlots. Red-tailed Hawks and American Kestrels are seen along the utility lines.

The agricultural portions of Renville County, with their monoculture of corn and soybeans, is not the place to look for rarities but in spite of this, the area provides habitat for many Minnesota birds so there is hope for the species that I have mentioned above.

In a few areas of the county where I am working there are extensive areas of grassland. One Waterfowl Production Area covers almost a square mile and the birdlife here is amazing, Bobolinks and Sedge Wrens are everywhere and can be heard as you drive by this beautiful prairie area. I haven’t had time to study the area but it no doubt has many other species of grassland birds. It shows what the preservation of habitat can do for birds.

The bird that is missing from the whole area is the Western Meadowlark; I wonder what it would take to restore this species to Renville County? What a treat it would be to hear their song drifting over this landscape

Salt Lake Weekend Birding Recap

By Ken Larson – – 

On April 29 over 100 birders from around the state searched the lakes, wetlands, woods and prairies of Lac Qui Parle, Big Stone and Yellow Medicine counties, finding 147 species of birds. Cold wet weather 2 days before and the later date for the weekend resulted in a good variety of waterfowl, raptors, shorebirds, warblers and sparrows.

Some of the best birds of the weekend were the Black-necked Stilt at Lone Tree Lake and a Prairie Falcon in southwestern Lac Qui Parle County, both reported by Jason Frank. Scott and Marilyn Scott spotted a Golden Eagle near Big Stone Lake and three miles northwest of Madison, Rebecca Flood was the first to spot a large flock of over 648 American Golden Plovers. Nearby at Madrena WMA, three White-faced Ibis, 123 American White Pelicans and one Western Grebe were spotted. Two Ferruginous Hawks were seen as well as numerous Swainson’s Hawks. Altogether 23 shorebird, 15 sparrow and 5 warbler species were counted.

All the birders involved extend thanks to the City of Marietta and the American Legion Womens Auxilary for breakfast and lunch and to the City of Madison and the Sons of Norway for dinner. Anyone wishing a complete list can email me directly at or find it on the MOU web site:

More Birding in Koochiching

Great Horned Owl
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Gary M. Stoltz, USFWS

In my last article, I wrote about my adventures to Koochiching County in January. These adventures continued into March with the great anticipation of a county lister. Those of us that keep track of birds by county are an “interesting” group of birders. We chase after common birds in remote places and have much fun increasing our county list numbers. This may sound like a strange way to see birds but it really isn’t, it teaches us over and over again what the distribution of Minnesota birds is all about. My latest adventure took me again to Koochiching County, the Minnesota county where I’ve seen the fewest species.

Through a network of birders created by Al Meadows in International Falls I found out that there were Great Horned and Northern Saw-whet Owls being heard near the small town of Littlefork. I had to plan a trip there ASAP to see and/or hear those owls and add them to my Koochiching County list. The trip was postponed for many days because of high winds and bad weather in the area. Windy days are bad for finding owls. Finally on March 21, I headed north. There was lots of snow left on the ground and the temperature was 10 degrees when I reached Littlefork at 5:00 PM. There was no wind and the sky was clear, great for looking for owls.

I met Lori Dobbs at her home. She greeted me like I was an old friend. Aren’t birders the greatest people! She immediately said let’s go and I will show you where I heard the owls.
For the next hour we drove around numerous back roads around Littlefork. Lori explained to me the area and where she had heard and seen both species of owls that I was looking for. After this adventure she led me to the only motel in town and the fancy (only) restaurant in town. I rented a room and then told Lori I would call her later and inform her of my findings. I sat down to dinner and when the waitress came to my table she asked me if I was Bob. Surprised to say the least, I asked how did you know? She replied that Lori and Gordon Dobbs were providing my dinner. What a treat and again I said to myself aren’t birders the greatest?

The sun was setting and I was through with dinner so I set off to find the owls. I went down a deadend road where Lori had pointed out that other birders had heard Great Horned Owls a week or so ago. It was a perfect night for owls, calm, clear and cold. I stopped the car, opened the windows and listened. Within 20 seconds I heard a Great Horned Owl hooting its’ “heart out” loud and clear. I scanned the horizon in the fading light and there was the silhouette of the most beautiful Great Horned Owl I had ever seen, # 222 for Koochiching County and the # 87th county for me in Minnesota for Great Horned Owl!

Northern Saw-whet Owl
Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus), Dave Darney, USFWS

I spent the next 3 hours traveling lonely back roads trying to hear a Northern Saw-whet Owl, all to no avail. It was well after 9:00 PM, I was tired after driving 300 + miles since morning. I decided for one last try, close to the motel that was near Lori’s home. It was near 10:00 PM, the stars and Milky Way were out brighter than ever. Before I got out of the car and turned off the engine I vaguely heard something that sounded a bit like a Saw-whet, I passed it off as my ears (brain) hearing what I wanted to hear. I stopped in the Dobbs’ driveway and got out of the car to enjoy the stars. Within 30 seconds there it was, the distinct low whistled “toots” of a Northern Saw-whet coming from some distance away. It was # 223 for Koochiching County, only 2 away from the coveted 225. Isn’t it great that county listers can count heard birds!

I slept well that night in Littlefork. I got up at 5:30 AM to drive to my next birding effort in Cook (St. Louis County), about 70 miles away, to look for an American Three-toed Woodpecker. I was to meet Julie Grahn, a local birder, and another birder named Jack (I never did get his last name) from Kansas City, who also wanted to see a Black-backed Woodpecker and the American Three-toed Woodpecker. We met at the McDonald’s in Cook at 8:00 AM and got into Julie’s car and spent the next 4 hours looking for my nemesis bird, the American Three-toed Woodpecker.

American Three-toed Woodpecker
American Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides dorsalis), by pbonenfant – Flickr, CC BY 2.0,

The definition of a nemesis bird is a bird that all your fellow listers have seen but no matter how hard you tried you have never seen one. Well to make a long story short, in spite of Julie’s great efforts and hospitality, the American Three-toed Woodpecker is still my nemesis bird. I did find two Black-backed Woodpeckers which made Jack happy. Julie and Jack went back to the spot after I left for home and saw the Three-toed. See what I mean by nemesis? So it is back to Cook in the near future to see what I can do about a nemesis. Maybe I will write a success story about it in a coming issue of the “Trumpeter”. I sure did meet some great birders on this trip which is always a neat experience.

Birding Koochiching County In January

Male Varied Thrush
Male Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius), Dave Menke, USFWS

I leave my house at 3:40 A.M., it is a “beautiful” January morning in Minnesota, January 15, 2017 to be exact. I am off on my favorite winter birding adventure in Minnesota, the seeking of a Varied Thrush in a new county, this time in a very special county. Most of my Minnesota birders know me as a compulsive county list keeper, they are correct. I am addicted to finding new county birds in the state which helps me keep track of the distribution of Minnesota birds, another favorite activity of mine.

Now back to my adventure to find a Varied Thrush in a new Minnesota county. As I head north on I-35 the temperature is falling. By the time I reach Cloquet it is well below zero, 9 degrees below to be exact, but the skies are clear and there is little or no wind. Wind is one of the worst things for birding, in my opinion, so I am pleased with a windless day so far. I head north on Highway 53 through Virginia and reach one of my favorite towns in Minnesota, Cook. I get gas and see my first birds of the day a Common Raven and an American Crow looking for food (hand-outs?). I always try and use the full names of birds so people are aware of them. As I continue north on 53 the temperature is on the rise, unusual for this time of year. I reach the Koochiching County line at 8:45 A.M.

Koochiching CountyKoochiching County is special to me, it is Minnesota’s second largest county at 3,173 square miles. It is difficult to build a big bird list in “Kooch”, as many people call it, because the habitat is so uniform, cutover, second growth forests, lack of lakes and much of it inaccessible plus being 300 miles from the Twin Cities. It is my lowest county list-wise at 220 species so any time I might be able to add a species to the list is a special event for me and now to have the possibility of adding a special species, the Varied Thrush, is a county lister’s dream. It is 9:20 A.M. and I arrive, 293 miles later, at the MacDonald’s in International Falls where I am to meet Al Meadows who will take me to the Varied Thrush location. Al is one of Minnesota’s best bird photographers. The temperature is near 20 degrees, just great for the “ice-box” city in Minnesota.

Al seems somewhat upset when he arrives, we exchange greetings and he says he has found out that the man whose house we are going to has a bad case of the flu. My ‘heart” drops to my stomach, all this way and now we can’t go look for the thrush. Al relieves my anxiety when he says “I will take you to the home but I won’t go in because I don‘t want to get the flu, I am going to Panama in a couple of days and I don’t want to get sick”.

We drive through downtown International Falls and to a residential area along the Rainey River. I am prepared to wait for hours if necessary to see the thrush at the bird feeder. We drive in the driveway and I see a man in the window motioning for us to come in, Al says “I will stay in the car”. I go into the house and meet a gentleman who seems very healthy, there is no introduction. All he says is that “the thrush is in the tree”. He leads me to a big window overlooking the river and there in the tree is a beautiful female Varied Thrush. I watch the bird for 5-10 minutes as it feds at the feeder. I thank the gentleman and go back to my car and Al is just leaving, he doesn’t want to get any closer to the flu “bug”.

Curve-billed thrush
Curve-billed thrush (Toxostoma curvirostre), Gary Kramer, USFWS

I decide to head for Grand Rapids to look for a Curve-billed Thrasher that has been coming to a feeder in a residential area of Grand Rapids. It is shortly afternoon when I arrived after a neat ride through wild Koochiching County along Highway 6. I saw Gray Jays and White-winged Crossbills plus 22 Pine Grosbeaks feeding in a crab apple tree in Big Falls. Arriving at the spot in Grand Rapids, I find three of my favorite county listers present looking for the thrasher. Have they seen the bird I ask, “no and we have been here since sunrise”. To make a long story short we all wait another four hours and the bird never puts in an appearance. We had great “bird” conversation but no bird, the trials and tribulations of birding! I finally decide to leave, dejected but happy with the Varied Thrush.

I arrive back home 594 miles later, tired but thankful that the roads were in great condition and that I had no problems. The lack of a Curve-billed Thrasher, there are only four other records for the state, is disappointing but to “bat 500” on a birding trip isn’t all that bad.

Frontenac – Minnesota’s Best Birding

By Bob Janssen, MRVAC President Elect 

It was May 11, 1947, a Saturday morning, and I was on my way to look at birds at Frontenac, the warbler capital of Minnesota. I was 14 years old and I couldn’t drive so my dad said he would take me and a friend on my first birding trip outside the Twin Cities area. We arrived at the old cemetery and it was loaded with birds, Blackburnian Warblers sitting on picnic tables near us. There were Mourning Warblers in the dense undergrowth that surrounded the cemetery. Black-throated Green Warblers were singing their “see-see suzy” song from the tall trees nearby. American Redstarts were everywhere. We spent the whole day watching migrating birds, sparrows, vireos, warblers, thrush’s, flycatchers and wrens pour through the woods at Frontenac. What an experience for a young teenager. I am forever grateful to my father for taking me on this magnificent trip.

A couple of weeks ago I saw the report of a Carolina Wren being seen at the old cemetery in Frontenac. I thought it was time to renew my acquaintance with this area and go and see if I could find the Carolina Wren which would be a new bird for my Goodhue County list. Sunday morning, November 27, 2016, I said to my wife lets go birding and see what the old cemetery at Frontenac looks like after the passage of 60 plus years; I didn’t mention that I wanted see a Carolina Wren. Suzanne is not a birder but she has put up with my birding activities for well over 60 years.

It was a cloudy, dreary day when we got to the cemetery, not a bird in sight, but the area looked just the same as it was many years ago. I decided to play the Carolina Wren song on my tape. No response, after several tries with the taped song. A White-breasted Nuthatch did respond. The best response was from a six foot six human who asked if I had heard the Carolina Wren. I said “No, but I did play the song from my tape”. His name was Ben and he looked disappointed. He said the bird had been seen and heard earlier down the road but he and his group had not seen it. I drove to this area and found five more birders, all of whom I knew. They had heard me play the tape. I suggested we play the mobbing tape and within two minutes the Carolina Wren put on a “show” right in front of us. There were over 25 Black-capped Chickadee’s, numerous Downy Woodpeckers and White-breasted Nuthatches with the wren that had been attracted by the tape. We had beautiful views of the Carolina Wren and it was a life bird for Ben! The Frontenac cemetery once again lived up to its reputation as one of Minnesota’s best birding destinations.

The Genius of Birds

by Jennifer Ackerman. Penguin Press, 2016

Review by Anne Hanley

genius-of-birds-bookIf you enjoyed the David Attenborough Life of Birds episode about the Bower birds’ decorating skills or the Nature show describing research with crows that showed they can recognize faces, you will find this book fascinating.

Ms. Ackerman describes many recent studies showing the amazing skills birds have – navigation, remembering locations and even tool use in some cases. I thought she did a great job of showing the marvelous behaviors and abilities in the avian world. I like birds a lot, but I found my appreciation growing the more chapters I finished.

The book is written for a general audience, so the more technical aspects of the research is not included. If you love statistics, you’ll have to check out the references in the footnotes.